According to a comparative study of fifty-nine nation by Koppel, Moody and Nemerov, published in the Texas Review of Law and Policy, concluded that “there is a statistically significant relationship between higher per capita gun ownership and freedom from corruption, economic freedom, and economic success. […] As a general (but not invariable) rule, countries with more guns have more economic freedom, less corruption, and more economic success. […] [T]he data raise serious doubts about whether the gun-reducing agenda makes sense as a categorical imperative, at least if freedom ranks highly in one’s hierarchy of values.”

The study went on to discuss some of the ways in which “Freedom causes guns” but also ways in which “guns cause freedom,” to wit: “American civil rights workers were able to protect themselves from the Ku Klux Klan because so many civil rights workers had guns.” The study also shows only rare circumstances in which guns reduce freedom, such as the Ivory Coast and the Congo, concluding that “guns in the wrong hands reduce freedom.”